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Thursday, 25 June 2020 08:38

Hadith 20-21 Featured

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20 – (19) عن أبي هريرة قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: قال الله تعالى: كذبني ابن آدم ولم يكن له ذلك وشتمني ولم يكن له ذلك فأما تكذيبه إياي فقوله: لن يعيدني كما بدأني وليس أول الخلق بأهون علي من إعادته وأما شتمه إياي فقوله: اتخذ الله ولدا وأنا الأحد الصمد الذي لم ألد ولم أولد ولم يكن لي كفوا أحد

21- (20) وفي رواية ابن عباس: وأما شتمه إياي فقوله: لي ولد وسبحاني أن أتخذ صاحبة أو ولدا (رواه البخاري)

It is reported from Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) that Hazrat Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said that Allah Ta‘ala said, “The son of Nabi Aadam (‘alaihis salaam) (man) has denied Me, and it is not right for him to do so, and he has spoken ill of Me, and it is not right for him to do so. As for his denying Me, then it is his statement, ‘Allah will never resurrect me (in the Hereafter) as He created me initially,’ whereas creating something for a second time is not more difficult for Me than creating it the first time (i.e. both are equal for Allah Ta‘ala). As for his speaking ill of Me, then it is his statement, ‘Allah took a son,’ whereas I am the only one and I am As-Samad (i.e. the One who is completely independent of the creation while the creation is completely dependent upn Me), I neither begot nor was I begotten, and there is no one like me.”

In the narration of Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbaas (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma), the following wording appears, “As for his speaking ill of me, then it is his saying that I have a child, whereas I am exalted and pure from taking a wife or a child.”

(20-21) Commentary:

This Hadith is a Hadith-e-Qudsi. A Hadith-e-Qudsi is a Hadith in which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), in his own words, conveys the message of Allah Ta‘ala.

The Definition of a Hadith-e-Qudsi

Allaamah Tibi (rahimahullah) has explained that Hadith-e-Qudsi refers to the Hadith of Allah Ta‘ala whose meaning and content was inspired into the heart of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) or was revealed to him in a dream. Thereafter, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) conveyed the meaning of this Hadith to the ummah in his own words.1

Mulla Ali Qaari (rahimahullah) has explained that a Hadith-e-Qudsi refers to that Hadith which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) attributes to Allah Ta‘ala at the time of narration. The meaning of the Hadith-e-Qudsi can be inspired into the blessed heart of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), or it can be shown to him in a dream or be conveyed to him via an angel. However, in all these cases, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) conveys the meaning of the Hadith-e-Qudsi to the ummah in his own words.2

The Difference between a Hadith-e-Qudsi and the Qur’aan Majeed

A Hadith-e-Qudsi is the speech of Allah Ta‘ala, and the Qur’aan Majeed is also the speech of Allah Ta‘ala. However, there are various differences between the two:

1. The Qur’aan Majeed is regarded as “وحي متلو” (wahi which is recited as tilaawat) whereas a Hadith-e-Qudsi is regarded as “وحي غير متلو” (wahi which is not recited as tilaawat).

2. The Qur’aan Majeed is “معجز” (it cannot be matched and is a miracle in its beauty, style, eloquence, etc,) whereas a Hadith-e-Qudsi is “غير معجز”. 

3. The person who rejects the Qur’aan Majeed becomes a kaafir as it is reported through tawaatur, whereas the one who rejects a Hadith-e-Qudsi does not become a kaafir as it is not reported through tawaatur.

4. The Qur’aan Majeed is the speech of Allah Ta‘ala in word and meaning i.e. the actual words conveyed are the words of Allah Ta‘ala as well as its meanings. However, in the case of a Hadith-e-Qudsi, the meaning is from Allah Ta‘ala while the words are the words of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).

5. In order for the Qur’aan Majeed to be regarded as the Qur’aan Majeed, it is a condition for it to be transmitted with “تواتر” (an unbroken chain of transmission, where from the beginning until the end of the chain, such a number of people transmit it that it is inconceivable for one to believe that all of them had conspired to fabricate the content that they are transmitting). In the case of a Hadith-e-Qudsi, it is not a condition for it to be transmitted with “تواتر”.

The Meaning of this Hadith:

فأما تكذيبه إياي – The question arises that by a person claiming that Allah Ta‘ala cannot resurrect him as He created him initially, how has the person actually denied Allah Ta‘ala?

The answer is that by making this statement, he has denied all those verses of the Qur’aan Majeed in which Allah Ta‘ala has claimed that he will resurrect man and jinn and give them life after death. Hence, through denying all these verses of the Qur’aan Majeed, he is actually implying that Allah Ta‘ala is a liar (Allah Ta‘ala forbid!) and He does not have the power to resurrect man.

وليس بأول الخلق بأهون علي – In reality, for a person to claim that he cannot be resurrected, despite knowing that Allah Ta‘ala has created him and Allah Ta‘ala decreed death for him is to deny Allah’s Ta‘ala quality of being All-Powerful and having the ability to create whenever He wishes.

The foolish people who make this type of claim did not ponder and realize that for a person to make something for the first time is difficult and complicated. However, after he has done it once, it becomes easy for him to do it for a second time. Hence, when Allah Ta‘ala created the human being initially, without any sample or example to follow, then for Allah  to resurrect him after his death should not be difficult at all. In fact, even creating a person initially was not at all difficult for Allah Ta‘ala, so to resurrect him should be easier for Allah Ta‘ala.

It should be borne in mind that the comparison between resurrection and initial creation, and one being easier than the other, is merely for our understanding and is in relation to our ability. As for Allah Ta‘ala, everything is equally easy for him as nothing is beyond His ability.

Allaamah Tibi (rahimahullah) has mentioned that this Hadith indicates towards the fact that resurrection and life after death is a reality and is indeed simple for Allah Ta‘ala. The reason is that the human body comprises of separate limbs and organs that were put together to create the human body. Just as Allah Ta‘ala created man the first time, through joining these limbs and organs, similarly Allah Ta‘ala, after the human being passes away and his body disintegrates, Allah Ta‘ala can join it again and create the human body for a second time, as He created it the first time. For one to say that it is not possible for Allah Ta‘ala to resurrect the body is in actual fact to deny the initial creation, and since the initial creation is accepted by all, then resurrection, which follows the same system, should be accepted as well.

Secondly, in this Hadith, a commonly witnessed concept is explained, that making something for the first time, without any example or sample to rely on, is difficult for a person, however doing it for the second time is not as difficult. We should then understand that that which is dificult for us (making something for the first time without a sample) is actually easy for Allah Ta‘ala, then that which is easy for us would be even easier for Allah Ta‘ala and He would have the complete ability to carry it out.

Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that this example is in relation to our ability and inability. As far as Allah Ta‘ala is concerned, nothing is easier or more difficult than something else, as He has complete and total power and ability over everyting equally.3

وأما شتمه إياي – The word “شتم” refers to the act of attributing something deficient and despised to a person. To attribute children to Allah Ta‘ala and claim that He took children for Himself, as claimed by the Christians who say that Nabi Isa (‘alaihis salaam) is the son of Allah Ta‘ala, or as claimed by the Jews who say that Hazrat Uzair (‘alaihis salaam) is the son of Allah Ta‘ala, or as claimed by the pagan Arabs who said that the angels are the daughters of Allah Ta‘ala, is all to hurl abuse and speak ill of Allah Ta‘ala.

The reason for attributing children to Allah Ta‘ala being regarded as speaking ill against Allah Ta‘ala is that there is always a resemblance between a father and child. Then, when a child has the qualities of being created and being in need of care, then through the father and child sharing similarities, it would necessitate that these qualities also be attributed to Allah Ta‘ala - whereas He is completely pure of these qualities and is above them. To attribute these qualities to Allah Ta‘ala is to attribute weakness and deficiency to Allah Ta‘ala, and hence it results in one speaking ill of Allah Ta‘ala.4

وفي رواية ابن عباس – This Hadith is also reported by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbaas (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma). However, there is a slight difference in the wording, though the meaning of both narrations is the same.

 1. إن هذا الحديث كلام قدسي والفرق بينه وبين القرآن هو اللفظ المنزل به جبريل عليه السلام للإعجاز عن الإيتان بسورة من مثله والحديث القدسي إخبار الله تعالى نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم معناه بإلهام أو بالمنام فأخبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمته عن ذلك المعنى بعبارة نفسه (شرح الطيبي 1/146)

2. هذا حديث قدسي والفرق بينه وبين القرآن أن الأول يكون بإلهام أو منام أو بواسطة ملك بالمعنى فيعبره بلفظه وينسبه إلى ربه والثاني لا يكون إلا بإنزال جبريل باللفظ المعين وهو أيضا متواتر بخلاف الأول فلا يكون حكمه حكمه في الفروع (مرقاة المفاتيح 1/95)

 3. شرح الطيبي 1/148

4. نفحات التنقيح 1/256

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