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Tuesday, 27 November 2018 04:45

Dua after Janaazah Salaah Featured

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Q: Mufti saheb, can you please explain to me the shar’ee ruling regarding making du‘aa after the janaazah salaah? In certain places, after the janaazah salaah is performed, I see people raise their hands and engage in collective du‘aa for the deceased. Is this practice established in the Hadith? Some people try to prove the practice of collective du‘aa after the janaazah salaah through the following Hadith. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said,

إذا صليتم على الميت فأخلصوا له الدعاء (سنن أبي داود رقم 3199)

“When you perform janaazah salaah upon any deceased, then sincerely make dua for him.”

Does this Hadith refer to making du‘aa for the deceased after janaazah salaah or does it refer to making du‘aa for the deceased in the janaazah salaah?

A: Janaazah salaah, in reality, is a du‘aa for the deceased. Thus, there is no need for an additional du‘aa after the janaazah salaah. The practice of making an additional du‘aa after the janaazah salaah is not established from any Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), nor is it proven from the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum). Hence, when this practice is not established from Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum), this practice will be deemed as an innovation in Deen and must be omitted.

In regard to bid’ah practices, the hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is explicit. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said,

كل بدعة ضلالة وكل ضلالة في النار (سنن النسائي رقم 1578)

“Every innovation (in Deen) is misguidance, and every misguidance leads one to the fire of Jahannum.”

In order for one to practise Deen correctly, one will have to follow the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and refrain from bid’ah. For one to refrain from bid’ah, it is essential for one to understand the definition of bid’ah.

The Definition of Bid’ah

According to the Fuqahaa and Muhadditheen, bid’ah is to regard something which has not been established from Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) or the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) as part of Deen, or for one to carry out a prescribed practice in Deen contrary to the manner in which the practice was carried out by Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum).[1]

Thus, it is clear from this definition that just as it is not permissible for one to introduce a new type of ibaadah in Deen, it is also impermissible for one to make any additions, subtractions or changes to the prescribed manner in which an ibaadah was practiced by Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum). Therefore, it is vitally important for us to preserve and maintain every act of Deen that is established from Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) in the exact manner in which it was passed down to the ummah by the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), regardless of whether the Deeni practice relates to salaah, zakaat, fasting, hajj, celebrating eid, nikaah, waleemah, burials, etc.

Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said,

قال حذيفة رضي الله عنه كل عبادة لم يتعبدها أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فلا تعبدوها فإن الأول لم يدع للآخر مقالا، فاتقوا الله يا معشر المسلمين، وخذوا بطريق من كان قبلكم (الإعتصام للشاطبي 2/630)

“Every type of ibaadat which the companions of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not practice, then you also should not practice it. Indeed, the former people of this ummah (the Sahaabah) did not leave any deficiency in any aspect of Deen for the latter people to complete. O believers fear Allah Ta‘ala and firmly hold onto the ways of the former people (the Sahaabah).”

The Practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum)

When we closely examine the practice of janaazah salaah, we do not find even one narration mentioning that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) engaged in du‘aa after the janaazah salaah. Therefore, even though du‘aa is a great and meritorious deed in Deen, through engaging in du‘aa at this time, one will be changing the prescribed manner in which the janaazahs used to take place during the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum). Hence, it is clear from the above that this additional du‘aa is in reality adding to Deen something which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not approve of, and this additional du‘aa enters under the definition of bid’ah.

The Correct Meaning of the Hadith

As for the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) that mentions,

إذا صليتم على الميت فأخلصوا له الدعاء (سنن أبي داود رقم 3199)

“When you perform janaazah salaah upon any deceased, then sincerely make dua for him,”

this Hadith does not prove, in any way, that the du‘aa for the deceased should be made after the janaazah salaah. Had this been the meaning of the Hadith, this would have been supported by the practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum). It cannot possibly be imagined that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) would have commanded the ummah to do something while he himself would leave out the practice.

Similarly, if the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) understood this Hadith to refer to making du‘aa for the deceased after the janaazah salaah, they would have definitely enquired from Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) as to why he was not practising on the very injunction that he commanded them to do, or they would have queried as to whether any abrogation and cancellation had come from the side of Allah Ta‘ala regarding this law.

Apart from this, those who promote the du‘aa after janaazah salaah are giving the impression, through their actions, that from the era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), the Sahaabah, Taabi’een, Tabe’ Taabi’een and the people of every century thereafter did not understand the Deen correctly. It is only in this belated era that Deen has now been understood correctly by them, and hence they have made this addition to the janaazah salaah. One should realize that when Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) had personally demonstrated the application of this Hadith through his mubaarak action, and he showed the ummah that the du‘aa mentioned in this Hadith refers to the du‘aa which is made for the deceased in the janaazah salaah itself, then who are we to add to the mubaarak Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)?

In the Qur’aan, Allah Ta‘ala clearly declares: “Today, I have completed and perfected Deen for you, and I am pleased with Islam as your religion (way of life).” (Surah Maa’idah, verse 3) When Allah Ta‘ala has declared the completion and perfection of Deen, then for one to make any additions, subtractions or changes to Deen, is to go against the declaration made by Allah Ta‘ala in this verse and to allude that Deen is incomplete.

Incorrect Deduction

Some people try to prove du‘aa after janaazah salaah by citing a rule of Arabic grammar. They contend that since the letter “faa” (ف) is attached at the beginning of the word فأخلصوا, hence the word صليتم is the shart (condition) and فأخلصوا is its jazaa (the command linked to the condition). In other words, the letter “faa” which comes with the jazaa (command) establishes that du‘aa should be made immediately after janaazah salaah (i.e. when you perform janaazah salaah on any deceased, then immediately make sincere du‘aa for him).

Our Response

Our response to this is that whenever a “faa” comes on the jazaa (command), it does not necessarily imply that the jazaa (command) has to take place immediately after the shart (condition). There are also examples where the jazaa (command) applies before the shart (condition) or simultaneously with the shart (condition), not after it. Consider the following:

Allah Ta‘ala mentions in the Qur’aan Majeed, إذا قمتم إلى الصلوة فاغسلوا وجوهكم (When you stand up for salaah, wash your faces). In this example, the command of washing of the face in wudhu takes place before one stands up to perform salaah. Thus, here the jazaa (command) precedes the shart (condition).

The example of the jazaa (command) occurring simultaneously with the shart (condition) is the verse, وإذا قرئ القرآن فاستمعوا له (When the Qur’aan is being recited, then listen attentively to the recitation). In this example, the command of listening attentively to the Qur’aan Majeed is taking place simultaneously with the recitation.

The example of the jazaa (command) occurring after the shart (condition) is the command of Allah Ta‘ala in the Qur’aan Majeed, فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةُ فَٱنتَشِرُوا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ ٱللَّـهِ (When the jumu‘ah salaah ends, then disperse in the land and seek from the grace of Allah Ta‘ala [halaal sustenance]). In this example, the command of dispersing in the land is taking place after the completion of the jumu‘ah salaah.

From the above discussion, it is clear that the “faa” that comes on the jazaa (command) has been used in three different ways in the Qur’aan Majeed. In order to determine which meaning is intended in the Hadith (إذا صليتم على الميت فأخلصوا له الدعاء), one will have to examine the practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) in this regard.

Understanding the Hadith through the Practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum)

After closely examining the practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), we conclude that the du‘aa referred to in the Hadith (إذا صليتم على الميت فأخلصوا له الدعاء) is the du‘aa which is made for the deceased in the janaazah salaah.

Furthermore, all the Fuqahaa have stated that dua should be made for the mayyit in the janaazah salaah. None of the Fuqahaa have stated that du‘aa should be made after the janaazah salaah. Hence, if du‘aa is made after janaazah salaah, then according to the ruling of the Fuqahaa, this will amount to carrying out a bid’ah practice and will not be permissible.

In conclusion, we should understand that the practice of making du‘aa after the janaazah salaah did not exist during the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), the Taabi’een, the Tabe-e-Tabieen (rahimahumullah) as well as in the centuries that followed, therefore this practice should be omitted.

May Allah Ta‘ala guide the ummah towards remaining on the path of the sunnah. And Allah Ta‘ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

لا يقوم بالدعاء بعد صلاة الجنازة ( الفتاوى البزازية على هامش هندية 4/80)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)


[1]عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد (صحيح مسلم رقم 1718)

عن جابر بن عبد الله قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا خطب احمرت عيناه وعلا صوته واشتد غضبه حتى كأنه منذر جيش يقول صبحكم ومساكم ويقول: بعثت أنا والساعة كهاتين ويقرن بين إصبعيه السبابة والوسطى ويقول: أما بعد فإن خير الحديث كتاب الله وخير الهدى هدى محمد وشر الأمور محدثاتها وكل بدعة ضلالة ثم يقول: أنا أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه من ترك مالا فلأهله ومن ترك دينا أو ضياعا فإلي وعلي (صحيح مسلم رقم 867)

كل بدعة ضلالة وكل ضلالة في النار (الجامع الصغير1/100) البدعة في المذهب ايراد قول لم يستن قائلها وفائلها فيه بصاحب الشريعة وأمثالها (المفردات ص36)

وفي شرعة الإسلام : المراد من السنة التي يجب التمسك بها ما كان عليه القرن المشهود لهم بالخير والصلاح والرشاد، وهم الخلفاء الراشدون ومن عاصر سيد الخلائق ، ثم الذين بعدهم من التابعين ، ثم من بعدهم. فما أحدث بعد ذلك من على خلاف مناهجهم فهو من البدعة، وكل بدعة ضلالة، وقد كانت الصحابة ينكرون أشد الإنكار على من أحدث أو ابتدع رسما لم يتعهدوه في عهد النبوة، قل ذلك أو كثر، صغر ذلك أو كبر. انتهى.(إقامة الحجة على أن الإكثار في التعبد ليس ببدعة صـ 20-21)

البدعة هي الأمر المحدث الذي لم يكن عليه الصحابة والتابعون ولم يكن مما اقتضاه الدليل الشرعي.(قواعد الفقه صـ 204)

(ومبتدع) أي صاحب بدعة وهي اعتقاد خلاف المعروف عن الرسول لا بمعاندة بل بنوع شبهة.(الدر المختار 1/561)

قال العلامة ابن عابدين - رحمه الله -: (قوله أي صاحب بدعة) أي محرمة، وإلا فقد تكون واجبة، كنصب الأدلة للرد على أهل الفرق الضالة، وتعلم النحو المفهم للكتاب والسنة ومندوبة كإحداث نحو رباط ومدرسة وكل إحسان لم يكن في الصدر الأول، ومكروهة كزخرفة المساجد. ومباحة كالتوسع بلذيذ المآكل والمشارب والثياب كما في شرح الجامع الصغير للمناوي عن تهذيب النووي، وبمثله في الطريقة المحمدية للبركلي (قوله وهي اعتقاد إلخ) عزاه هذا التعريف في هامش الخزائن إلى الحافظ ابن حجر في شرح النخبة، ولا يخفى أن الاعتقاد يشمل ما كان معه عمل أو لا، فإن من تدين بعمل لا بد أن يعتقده كمسح الشيعة على الرجلين وإنكارهم المسح على الخفين وذلك، وحينئذ فيساوي تعريف الشمني لها بأنها ما أحدث على خلاف الحق المتلقى عن رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - من علم أو عمل أو حال بنوع شبهة واستحسان، وجعل دينا قويما وصراطا مستقيما اهـ فافهم (قوله لا بمعاندة) أما لو كان معاندا للأدلة القطعية التي لا شبهة له فيها أصلا كإنكار الحشر أو حدوث العالم ونحو ذلك، فهو كافر قطعا (قوله بل بنوع شبهة) أي وإن كانت فاسدة كقول منكر الرؤية بأنه تعالى لا يرى لجلاله وعظمته.(رد المحتار 1/561)

منها: وضع الحدود; كالناذر للصيام قائما لا يقعد، ضاحيا لا يستظل، والاختصاص في الانقطاع للعبادة، والاقتصار من المأكل والملبس على صنف دون صنف من غير علة. ومنها: التزام الكيفيات والهيئات المعينة، كالذكر بهيئة الاجتماع على صوت واحد، واتخاذ يوم ولادة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عيدا، وما أشبه ذلك. ومنها: التزام العبادات المعينة في أوقات معينة لم يوجد لها ذلك التعيين في الشريعة، كالتزام صيام يوم النصف من شعبان وقيام ليلته.(الاعتصام 1/53)

البدعة طريقة مخترعة في الدين تضاهي الطريقة الشرعية يقصد بالسلوك عليها ما يقصد بالطريقة الشرعية. (تكملة فتح الملهم 2/595)

قال السيوطي – رحمه الله – في كتابه "حقيقه السنة والبدعة": فصل في تمييز البدعة من السنة - ما السنة؟ اعلم رحمك الله إن السنة في اللغة الطريق، ولا ريب في أن أهل النقل والأثر، المتبعين آثار رسول الله (وآثار الصحابة، هم أهل السنة؛ لأنهم على تلك الطريق التي لم يحدث فيها حادث، وإنما وقعت الحوادث والبدع بعد رسول الله وأصحابه). ما البدعة؟ والبدعة عبارة عن فعلة تصادم الشريعة بالمخالفة، أو توجب التعاطي عليها بزيادة أو نقصان. وقد كان جمهور السلف يكرهون ذلك، وينفرون من كل مبتدع. وإن كان جائزاً حفاظاً للأصل، وهو الاتباع، وقد قال زيد بن ثابت لأبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما حين قالا له "اجمع القرآن ": كيف تفعلان شيئاً لم يفعله رسول الله؟ (وعن عبد الله بن أبي سلمة: أن سعد بن مالك رحمه الله تعالى سمع رجلاً يقول: " لبيك ذا المعارج " فقال: ما كنا نقول هذا على عهد رسول الله). (حقيقة السنة والبدعة 1/88)

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